Macular
Degeneration
Summary
Macular degeneration is one of the top 5 causes for sight loss worldwide. The macularis the part of the retina responsible for central, reading vision.

Macular degeneration can be described as dry or wet. Both conditions canpresent with early distortion or loss of central vision.

It is common in thoseover the age 50, however can also be present in younger people with co-existingconditions such as very high short-sightedness, previous inflammatoryconditions, or a strong family history.
Symptoms
There are many symptoms regarding Macular Degeneration which can be seen below:
  • Visual distortion
  • Difficulty reading
  • Need for brighter light/magnifiers
  • Straightlines looking wavy
  • Difficulty recognising faces
Predisposing Factors
The many predisposing factors regarding Macular Degeneration which can be seen below:
  • Genetic factors
  • Age
  • Smoking
  • UV light
  • Diet
Dry Macular Degeneration
Can remain stable for years and deteriorate slowly. There can be a varying speed of loss of central vision however the peripheral vision for navigation remains intact.

There are multiple trials looking for treatments to delay progress, however currently there are no approved treatments available.
Wet Macular Degeneration
Wet Macular Degeneration can present more quickly with a rapid reduction of vision. It is caused by leakage of fluid into the layers of the camera film.

This requires urgent treatment, normally with injections of drugs knowns as anti-VEGF drugs.

Currently common treatments approved and commonly used in the UK are Ranibizumab(Lucentis), Aflibercept (Eylea), Faricimab (Vabysmo), Brolucizumab (Beovu).

Bevacizumab (Avastin) has also been used widely, and there are currently many new treatment regimes undergoing trials or waiting for approvals in the UK.

To find out more about the current or new treatments such as biosimilars, portdelivery systems, Faricimab you can contact Dr Rupal Morjaria.
Advice
Follow the advice below to help with Macular Degeneration:
  • Monitor distortion regularly using a amsler grid covering one eye at a time when testing
  • A ‘Mediterranean’ diet rich in green leafy vegetables, oily fish
  • Wearing Sunglasses
  • Headwear such as caps
  • Some vitamins have been found to delay worsening of the condition including Xanthine and Lutein
Amsler Grid
Follow the instructions below when using the Amsler Grid :

  • Tape this page at eye level where light is consistent and without glare covering one eye at a time when testing
  • Put on your reading glasses and cover one eye
  • While keeping your gaze fixed, try to see if the neighbouring lines are distorted
  • Mark the defect on the chart
  • Test each eye Seperately
  • If the distortion is new or has worsened, please see an Ophthalmologist urgently.
  • Always keep the Amsler’s Chart the same distance from your eyes each time you test.
An Amsler Grid

Cataract Surgery

30% of adults over 65 are estimated to have cataracts in the UK.
Cataract surgery is the replacement of your natural opacified lens for a clear lens. It is the most common outpatient procedure carried out.

Diabetic Retinopathy

Diabetic retinopathy is the presence of fluid leakage and bleeding at the back of they eye due to poor blood sugar control. Treatment can help to preserve vision.

Retinal Vein Occlusion

This results in loss of vision from a blockage in one of the main retinal vessels or a branch resulting in fluid leakage and bleeding into the eye. Laser treatment and injections into the eye can help to preserve vision or prevent complete loss of vision.

Macular Degeneration

Dry and Wet Macular degeneration are common causes of blindness. There are many factors that can predispose you to getting this. Treatment can be given to delay loss of vision from wet macular degeneration including anti-VEGF injections.

Central Serous Retinopathy

This is a condition causing central distortion as a result of fluid accumulation under the retina. In most people it improves within a short time period, however some require investigation and treatment.

Retinitis Pigmentosa

Retinitis Pigmentosa is a general term for a range of genetic retinal conditions which results in early loss of central or peripheral vision.

Yag Laser Capsulotomy

This is a simple commonly performed procedure within 1 to 5 years after cataract surgery to polish the lens.

Retinal injections

Retinal injections include anti-VEGF injections such as Lucentis (Ranibizumab), Eylea (Aflibercept), Avastin (Bevacizumab) and steroid injections; triamcinolone, ozurdex (dexamethasone implant) and Iluvien (fluoncinolone implant) are used to treat sight threatening conditions.

Professional Memberships

  • Royal College of Ophthalmologists
  • British Medical Association
  • Medical Defence Union
  • UK Eye Genetics group
  • EuRetina
  • Midland Ophthalmology Society

Prizes/Awards


  • Ophthalmology Honours Award Honouree
  • West Midlands Trainee Award Nominee
  • Midland Ophthalmology Society Travel Award for the best Oral Presentation.
  • MidlandOphthalmology Society Travel Award for the best Poster Presentation.
  • Midlands Roper Hall Prize “Runner up” for Oral Presentation.

Contact Rupal Morjaria.

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